HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) is a zwitterionic buffer commonly used in biological and biochemical research. It is a highly soluble, non-toxic, and stable compound that maintains a constant pH in a wide range of biological systems. HEPES is widely used in cell culture, protein purification, and enzyme assays due to its unique properties.
HEPES HEPES Monosodium Salt Monosodium Salt, HEPES N 2 Hydroxyethylpiperazine N' 2' ethanesulfonic Acid N-2-Hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2'-ethanesulfonic Acid Salt, HEPES Monosodium
Method of Synthesis or Extraction
HEPES can be synthesized by several methods, including the reaction of piperazine with ethylene oxide and sulfonic acid, the reaction of piperazine with chloroacetic acid, and the reaction of piperazine with ethylene chlorohydrin and sodium sulfite. The efficiency and yield of each method vary, but the reaction of piperazine with ethylene oxide and sulfonic acid is the most commonly used method due to its high yield and purity. However, this method requires the use of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which can pose environmental and safety considerations.
Chemical Structure and Biological Activity
HEPES is a zwitterionic buffer with a pKa of 7.5, which makes it an effective buffer in the physiological pH range. The chemical structure of HEPES consists of a piperazine ring, an ethyl group, and a sulfonic acid group. HEPES has a high water solubility and is stable at a wide range of temperatures and pH values. HEPES is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which is involved in the regulation of acid-base balance in the body.
HEPES has several biological effects on cell function and signal transduction. It has been shown to enhance the growth and survival of cells in culture, improve the stability of proteins, and increase the activity of enzymes. HEPES has also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. However, HEPES can also have toxic effects on cells at high concentrations, which can lead to cell death and tissue damage.
HEPES has a wide range of applications in medical, environmental, and industrial research. In medical research, HEPES is used in drug development, clinical trials, and findings. It has been shown to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs, reduce side effects, and enhance drug delivery. In environmental research, HEPES is used to study the effects of pollutants on ecosystems, manage pollution, and promote sustainability. In industrial research, HEPES is used in manufacturing processes to improve product quality and efficiency, and to ensure health and safety considerations.
Future Perspectives and Challenges
Despite its widespread use, there are still limitations in the use and study of HEPES. One of the main challenges is the lack of understanding of its mechanism of action and biological targets. There is also a need for more research on the potential toxic effects of HEPES on cells and tissues. Future trends and prospects in the application of HEPES in scientific research include the development of new and improved methods of synthesis, the identification of new biological targets, and the exploration of its potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of various diseases. Conclusion HEPES is a versatile and widely used buffer in biological and biochemical research. Its unique properties make it an effective tool in cell culture, protein purification, and enzyme assays. However, there are still limitations and challenges in the use and study of HEPES, which require further research and development. The future prospects of HEPES in scientific research are promising, and it is likely to continue to play an important role in medical, environmental, and industrial research.
Q1: How Can I Obtain a Quote for a Product I'm Interested In?
To receive a quotation, send us an inquiry about the desired product.
The quote will cover pack size options, pricing, and availability details.
If applicable, estimated lead times for custom synthesis or sourcing will be provided.
Quotations are valid for 30 days, unless specified otherwise.
Q2: What Are the Payment Terms for Ordering Products?
New customers generally require full prepayment.
NET 30 payment terms can be arranged for customers with established credit.
Contact our customer service to set up a credit account for NET 30 terms.
We accept purchase orders (POs) from universities, research institutions, and government agencies.
Q3: Which Payment Methods Are Accepted?
Preferred methods include bank transfers (ACH/wire) and credit cards.
Request a proforma invoice for bank transfer details.
For credit card payments, ask sales representatives for a secure payment link.
Checks aren't accepted as prepayment, but they can be used for post-payment on NET 30 orders.
Q4: How Do I Place and Confirm an Order?
Orders are confirmed upon receiving official order requests.
Provide full prepayment or submit purchase orders for credit account customers.
Send purchase orders to email@example.com.
A confirmation email with estimated shipping date follows processing.
Q5: What's the Shipping and Delivery Process Like?
Our standard shipping partner is FedEx (Standard Overnight, 2Day, FedEx International Priority), unless otherwise agreed.
You can use your FedEx account; specify this on the purchase order or inform customer service.
Customers are responsible for customs duties and taxes on international shipments.
Q6: How Can I Get Assistance During the Ordering Process?
Reach out to our customer service representatives at firstname.lastname@example.org.
For ongoing order updates or questions, continue using the same email.
Remember, we're here to help! Feel free to contact us for any queries or further assistance.
Note: Kindly utilize formal channels such as professional, corporate, academic emails, etc., for inquiries. The use of personal email for inquiries is not advised.
2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonate is a HEPES. It is a conjugate base of a 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonic acid and a 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-4-ium-1-yl]ethanesulfonate.
Tenofovir(GS 1278, PMPA) is an antiretroviral drug known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, a crucial virus enzyme in HIV-1 and HBV.IC50 Value:0.5-2.2 uM (HIV-1); 1.6-4.9 uM (HIV-2) Target: NRTIsin vitro: Tenofovir hydrate reduces the viral cytopathic effect of HIV-1(IIIB), HIV-2(ROD) and HIV(EHO) with EC50 of 1.15 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL and 1.05 μg/mL in MT-4 cells. Tenofovir hydrate also reduces the viral cytopathic effect of SIV(mac251) , SIV(B670) ,SHIV(89.6) and SHIV(RTSHIV) . Tenofovir hydrate inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity in HepG2 2.2.15, HepAD38 and HepAD79 cells . Tenofovir hydrate (4 μM) completely inhibits the growth of HIVIIIB in MT-2 cells. Tenofovir hydrate inhibits synthesis of negative strand strong-stop DNA with IC50 of 9 M for wild-type RT, 6 M for M184V RT and 50 M for K65R RT .in vivo: Tenofovir hydrate (30 mg/kg) completely prevents SIV infection in all macaques without toxicity. Tenofovir hydrate treatment reduces plasma viral RNA levels to undetectable, with parallel decreases in the infectivity of plasma and infectious cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and stabilization of CD4+ T-cell numbers. Tenofovir hydrate (30 mg/kg, s.c.) completely abrogates HIV infection via intravaginal exposure in pig-tailed macaques .Clinical indications: HIV-1 infection; hepatitis B virusinfectionsFDA Approved Date: 12 July 2006Toxicity: The mean change of eGFR from the baseline to the six months of follow-up was +/-1.32 and +/- 5.88 mL/minute in the TDF and AZT groups. Proximal tubular dysfunction was not noted at three and six months of follow-up. However patients in the TDF group had lower serum phosphate and higher renal potassium loss than the AZT group at six months of follow-up (p = 0.08 and p = 0.09, respectively). No patients in the two groups with distal tubular dysfunctions were noted .
Bisindolylmaleimide IX (BIM IX) is a synthetic compound that belongs to the bisindolylmaleimide family. It is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) and has been extensively studied for its biological activity and potential therapeutic applications.
PI4KIII beta inhibitor 3 is a novel and high effective PI4KIII beta inhibitor with IC50 of 5.7 nM.IC50 Value: 5.7 nMTarget: PI4Kin vitro: The most effective test compound, the compound of formula 3 (PI4KIII beta inhibitor 3), inhibited IL2 and IFNy secretion with IC50 values of less than 1 nM in each case. Thus, the compound of formula (3) was shown to be as effective at inhibiting IL2 and IFNy secretion as conventional immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine A. IC50 on IFNy and IL-2 release of Cyclosporine A are 2nM and less than 1 nM respectively .in vivo: Twelve animals received daily treatment with vehicle (1%methylcellulose), twelve others received PI4KIII beta inhibitor 3 at 40 mg/kg/d in 1% methylcellulose .Clinical trial: N/A
GSK-5498A is a selective small molecule blocker of CRAC channel(IC50=1 uM); inhibit mediator release from mast cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from T-cells in a variety of species.IC50 value: 1 uM Target: CARC channel blockerGSK-5498A completely inhibited calcium influx through CRAC channels. This led to inhibition of the release of mast cell mediators and T-cell cytokines from multiple human and rat preparations. Mast cells from guinea-pig and mouse preparations were not inhibited by GSK-5498A.
Biperiden hydrochloride is a synthetic anticholinergic drug that is commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of muscle movement. Biperiden hydrochloride is also used as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotic drugs.
Gilteritinib is a small molecule drug that has been developed for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the FLT3 receptor, which is commonly mutated in AML patients. Gilteritinib has shown promising results in clinical trials and has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory AML.
Meridia, also known as sibutramine, is a medication used for weight loss and management of obesity. It was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997 and was widely prescribed until it was withdrawn from the market in 2010 due to safety concerns. Meridia works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness, leading to reduced food intake and weight loss.