PD 168077 maleate is a potent and selective agonist of the dopamine D4 receptor. It has been extensively studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders.
PD 168077 maleate can be synthesized using various methods, including chemical synthesis, enzymatic synthesis, and microbial synthesis. Chemical synthesis involves the reaction of 4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-4-ol with 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine in the presence of a base. Enzymatic synthesis involves the use of enzymes to catalyze the reaction between 4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-4-ol and 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine. Microbial synthesis involves the use of microorganisms to produce PD 168077 maleate. The efficiency and yield of each method vary, with chemical synthesis being the most efficient and yielding the highest amount of PD 168077 maleate. However, chemical synthesis is associated with environmental and safety considerations, such as the use of toxic chemicals and the generation of hazardous waste.
Chemical Structure and Biological Activity
PD 168077 maleate has a chemical formula of C24H28Cl3N3O2.C4H4O4 and a molecular weight of 603.91 g/mol. Its chemical structure consists of a piperidine ring, a phenyl ring, and a piperazine ring. PD 168077 maleate is a potent and selective agonist of the dopamine D4 receptor, with an affinity of 4.3 nM. It has been shown to stimulate the release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, leading to improved cognitive function and motor activity.
PD 168077 maleate has been shown to have various biological effects on cell function and signal transduction. It has been shown to increase the activity of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, leading to increased dopamine release and improved cognitive function. PD 168077 maleate has also been shown to modulate the activity of the NMDA receptor, leading to improved synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, PD 168077 maleate also has potential therapeutic and toxic effects, such as the risk of addiction and the potential for neurotoxicity.
PD 168077 maleate has various applications in medical research, such as its role in drug development and clinical trials. It has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Parkinson's disease. PD 168077 maleate has also been studied for its potential applications in environmental research, such as its effects on ecosystems and its role in pollution management. In industrial research, PD 168077 maleate has been used in manufacturing processes to improve product quality and efficiency, with health and safety considerations being a major concern.
Future Perspectives and Challenges
Despite the potential therapeutic applications of PD 168077 maleate, there are current limitations in its use and study, such as the lack of long-term safety data and the need for further clinical trials. Possible solutions and improvements include the development of more selective and potent agonists of the dopamine D4 receptor and the use of alternative methods of synthesis or extraction that are more environmentally friendly and safer. Future trends and prospects in the application of PD 168077 maleate in scientific research include the development of personalized medicine and the use of PD 168077 maleate in combination with other drugs to improve therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion: PD 168077 maleate is a potent and selective agonist of the dopamine D4 receptor that has potential therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Its method of synthesis or extraction, chemical structure, biological activity, biological effects, applications, future perspectives, and challenges have been discussed in this paper. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic and toxic effects of PD 168077 maleate and to develop safer and more effective drugs for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Q1: How Can I Obtain a Quote for a Product I'm Interested In?
To receive a quotation, send us an inquiry about the desired product.
The quote will cover pack size options, pricing, and availability details.
If applicable, estimated lead times for custom synthesis or sourcing will be provided.
Quotations are valid for 30 days, unless specified otherwise.
Q2: What Are the Payment Terms for Ordering Products?
New customers generally require full prepayment.
NET 30 payment terms can be arranged for customers with established credit.
Contact our customer service to set up a credit account for NET 30 terms.
We accept purchase orders (POs) from universities, research institutions, and government agencies.
Q3: Which Payment Methods Are Accepted?
Preferred methods include bank transfers (ACH/wire) and credit cards.
Request a proforma invoice for bank transfer details.
For credit card payments, ask sales representatives for a secure payment link.
Checks aren't accepted as prepayment, but they can be used for post-payment on NET 30 orders.
Q4: How Do I Place and Confirm an Order?
Orders are confirmed upon receiving official order requests.
Provide full prepayment or submit purchase orders for credit account customers.
Send purchase orders to email@example.com.
A confirmation email with estimated shipping date follows processing.
Q5: What's the Shipping and Delivery Process Like?
Our standard shipping partner is FedEx (Standard Overnight, 2Day, FedEx International Priority), unless otherwise agreed.
You can use your FedEx account; specify this on the purchase order or inform customer service.
Customers are responsible for customs duties and taxes on international shipments.
Q6: How Can I Get Assistance During the Ordering Process?
Reach out to our customer service representatives at firstname.lastname@example.org.
For ongoing order updates or questions, continue using the same email.
Remember, we're here to help! Feel free to contact us for any queries or further assistance.
Note: Kindly utilize formal channels such as professional, corporate, academic emails, etc., for inquiries. The use of personal email for inquiries is not advised.
Anamorelin hydrochloride is a novel orally active ghrelin receptor agonist that has been developed for the treatment of cancer cachexia. It is a small molecule drug that selectively binds to the ghrelin receptor, which is expressed in various tissues, including the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gastrointestinal tract. Anamorelin hydrochloride has shown promising results in clinical trials, demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent for the management of cancer cachexia.
FTI 277 HCl is a small molecule inhibitor that targets farnesyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the post-translational modification of proteins. This molecule has gained significant attention in the scientific community due to its potential therapeutic applications in cancer and other diseases.
(2S)-2-amino-N-[[4-(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)-3-methylphenyl]methyl]propanamide, also known as A-769662, is a small molecule compound that has gained significant attention in the scientific community due to its potential therapeutic applications. A-769662 is a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis.
RuBi-GABA is a synthetic compound that has gained significant attention in the scientific community due to its unique properties and potential applications. It is a ruthenium-based compound that acts as a photoactivatable GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor agonist.
Unii-0C33ibk195 is a chemical compound that has gained significant attention in scientific research due to its potential therapeutic and environmental applications. This paper aims to provide an overview of the synthesis, chemical structure, biological activity, and potential applications of Unii-0C33ibk195.
Tubacin is a small molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which is a class IIb HDAC enzyme. It was first discovered in 2003 by Haggarty et al. as a potent and selective inhibitor of HDAC6. Since then, it has been extensively studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.
YM 202074 is a synthetic compound that has gained significant attention in the scientific community due to its potential therapeutic and environmental applications. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of YM 202074, including its method of synthesis or extraction, chemical structure and biological activity, biological effects, applications, future perspectives, and challenges.
Potent neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y5 receptor antagonist (IC50 values are 5.4, > 1000, > 10 000 and > 10 000 nM at Y5, Y1, Y2 and Y4 receptors respectively) that displays no affinity for a wide range of other receptors. Does not produce a conditioned taste aversion, suppress sodium appetite or cause pica in rats. Significantly inhibits NPY-induced feeding but not through blockade of Y5 receptors.