Amaranth is a plant that has been used for centuries as a food source and for medicinal purposes. It belongs to the family Amaranthaceae and is known for its high nutritional value. In recent years, amaranth has gained attention for its potential therapeutic and industrial applications. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of amaranth, including its method of synthesis or extraction, chemical structure and biological activity, biological effects, applications, and future perspectives and challenges.
10 to 50 mg/mL at 73° F (NTP, 1992) 1 g soluble in 15 mL water; also reported as 7.2 g/100 mL water at 26 °C In methyl Cellosolve (monomethyl ether of ethylene glycol) = 10 mg/mL, in ethanol = 0.7 mg/mL Soluble in glycerol, propylene glycol; insoluble in most organic solvents. In water, 6.0X10+4 mg/L at 25 °C
Acid Red 27 Amaranth Dye AR27 Compound Azorubin S C.I. Acid Red 27 C.I. Food Red 9 Compound, AR27 FD and C Red No. 2 Red Dye No. 2
Amaranth can be synthesized or extracted using various methods. The most common methods include solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction. Solvent extraction involves the use of solvents such as ethanol, methanol, and water to extract the bioactive compounds from the plant. Supercritical fluid extraction uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent to extract the compounds. Microwave-assisted extraction uses microwave energy to extract the compounds. The efficiency and yield of each method vary depending on the type of amaranth and the extraction conditions. Environmental and safety considerations should also be taken into account when choosing a method.
Chemical Structure and Biological Activity
Amaranth contains various bioactive compounds, including squalene, betacyanins, and flavonoids. The chemical structure of these compounds contributes to their biological activity. Squalene has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Betacyanins have been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The mechanism of action and biological targets of these compounds are still being studied, but their bioactivity and potency make them promising candidates for therapeutic applications.
Amaranth has been shown to have various biological effects on cell function and signal transduction. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects. It has also been shown to have potential therapeutic and toxic effects. The potential therapeutic effects include the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. The potential toxic effects include hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to fully understand the biological effects of amaranth.
Amaranth has potential applications in medical research, environmental research, and industrial research. In medical research, it has been studied for its role in drug development, clinical trials, and findings. It has been shown to have benefits for diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. However, potential side effects should also be considered. In environmental research, amaranth has been studied for its effects on ecosystems, its role in pollution management, and its sustainability and environmental impact. In industrial research, it has been used in manufacturing processes to improve product quality and efficiency. Health and safety considerations should also be taken into account when using amaranth in industrial applications.
Future Perspectives and Challenges
Despite the potential applications of amaranth, there are still limitations in its use and study. These include the lack of standardization in extraction methods and the need for further studies to fully understand its biological effects. Possible solutions and improvements include the development of standardized extraction methods and the use of advanced technologies to study its biological effects. Future trends and prospects in the application of amaranth in scientific research include its potential use in personalized medicine and its role in the development of novel therapeutics. Conclusion: Amaranth is a promising plant with potential applications in various fields, including medical research, environmental research, and industrial research. Its bioactive compounds have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. However, further studies are needed to fully understand its biological effects and potential side effects. Standardization of extraction methods and the use of advanced technologies can help overcome current limitations and pave the way for future applications of amaranth in scientific research.
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A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Potent, selective CB2 agonist (Ki = 7.1 nM). Efficacious in vivo, broad-spectrum antinociceptive effects. AM1241 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist that is selective for CB2 over CB1 with Ki values of 7.1 and 580 nM for human recombinant receptors transfected into HEK and CHO cells, respectively, in a radioligand binding assay. It is considered a protean agonist as it has neutral antagonist and partial agonist activity, depending on the assay utilized. It is also acts in a species-dependent manner in vitro, acting as an agonist at human CB2 receptors (EC50 = 190 nM) but an inverse agonist at rat and mouse CB2 receptors (EC50s = 216 and 463 nM, respectively). AM1241 produces antinociception to thermal stimuli in rat hindpaw. The antinociceptive actions of AM1241 were blocked by the CB2 receptor-selective antagonist AM630 but not by the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist AM251. AM1241 is neuroprotective, preventing HIV-1 glycoprotein Gp120-induced apoptosis in primary human and murine neural progenitor cells and increasing cell survival and differentiation. It increases hippocampal neurogenesis and decreases astro- and gliogenesis in GFAP/Gp120 transgenic mice when administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg daily for ten days. AM1241 also delays motor impairment in a murine model of amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AM-1241 is a chemical from the aminoalkylindole family that acts as a potent and selective agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB2. It has analgesic effects in animal studies, particularly against "atypical" pain such as hyperalgesia and allodynia.
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AM-1638, also known as AMG-1638, is a potent and orally Bioavailable GPR40/FFA1 Full Agonist. Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes.